Despite the DOTS multi-drug treatment regimen in clinical practice for more than two decades, TB continues to be a leading cause of mortality due to infectious diseases. Interestingly, emergent problems of increased incidence of MDR/XDR strains along with the dramatic increase in EPTB cases is creating a challenging scenario for India’s ambition of eliminating TB by 2025. While remarkable scientific insights have been decoded in these last two decades with regard to TB pathogenesis; TB diagnosis and treatment regimens have completely remained insulated from these developments. A feature that has lagged behind in terms of treatment modalities is the role of the host cells and tissues in modulating disease trajectories. In fact, it is now clear that host-pathogen crosstalk is the key determinant influencing the outcome of Mtb infection. Another hidden danger with long-term treatment is of creating an AMR reservoir in the intestinal microbiome of these patients. Increasingly, several studies highlight the links between the microbiota and the immune system of the host. This meeting is an attempt to deliberate o n these new paradigms and bring some of these aspects into the mainstream practice providing impetus towards accelerated clinical outcomes.